用户切换

Description

这个插件允许您在 WordPress 中快速切换为不同的用户登录,只需点击一个按钮,您就可以立即登入为您想要的用户。这个对于管理员拥有多个账户、且需要频繁切换账户的测试环境中非常有用。

功能

  • 切换用户:在 用户 页面快速切换为任意用户。
  • 切回:同时还可以快速切回之前的账户。
  • 临时登出:登出用户,在需要的时候快速登入。
  • Switching between users is secure (see the 安全性 section below).
  • Compatible with WordPress, WordPress Multisite, WooCommerce, BuddyPress, bbPress, and most two-factor authentication plugins.

安全性

  • Only users with the ability to edit other users can switch user accounts. By default this is only Administrators on single site installations, and Super Admins on Multisite installations.
  • 不会(也不可能)暴露用户之间的密码。
  • 使用 WordPress 自身的 cookie 验证系统来记录您的用户切换。
  • 基于 WordPress 的临时安全系统实现,保证用户切换请求无法被伪造。
  • Full support for user session validation where appropriate.
  • 完整支持 SSL 后台管理(如果可用的话)

用法

  1. 在 WordPress 中访问 用户 菜单,然后您会在每个用户的动作按钮旁边发现一个 切换用户 的链接。
  2. 点击这个链接你会立即切换为这个用户。
  3. 您可以通过管理后台的 切回 链接或者工具栏处的用户档案下拉菜单中的链接快速切换为原始登录用户。

查看 FAQ 来了解更多关于 临时登出 等更多功能。

Privacy Statement

User Switching makes use of browser cookies in order to allow users to switch to another account. Its cookies operate using the same mechanism as the authentication cookies in WordPress core, therefore their values contain the user’s user_login field in plain text which should be treated as potentially personally identifiable information. The names of the cookies are:

  • wordpress_user_sw_{COOKIEHASH}
  • wordpress_user_sw_secure_{COOKIEHASH}
  • wordpress_user_sw_olduser_{COOKIEHASH}

User Switching does not send data to any third party, nor does it include any third party resources, nor will it ever do so.

See also the FAQ for some questions relating to privacy and safety when switching between users.

Ethical Open Source

User Switching is considered Ethical Open Source because it meets all of the criteria of The Ethical Source Definition (ESD):

  1. It benefits the commons.
  2. It is created in the open.
  3. Its community is welcoming and just.
  4. It puts accessibility first.
  5. It prioritizes user safety.
  6. It protects user privacy.
  7. It encourages fair compensation.

屏幕截图

  • The Switch To link on the Users screen

  • The Switch To link on a user's profile

常见问题

What does “Switch off” mean?

Switching off logs you out of your account but retains your user ID in an authentication cookie so you can switch straight back without having to log in again manually. It’s akin to switching to no user, and being able to switch back.

The Switch Off link can be found in your profile menu in the WordPress toolbar. Once you’ve switched off you’ll see a Switch back link on the Log In screen and in the footer of your site.

Does this plugin work with WordPress Multisite?

Yes, and you’ll also be able to switch users from the Users screen in Network Admin.

Does this plugin work with BuddyPress?

Yes, and you’ll also be able to switch users from member profile screens and the member listing screen.

Does this plugin work with bbPress?

Yes, and you’ll also be able to switch users from member profile screens.

Does this plugin work with WooCommerce?

Yes, but for maximum compatibility you should use WooCommerce version 3.6 or later.

我的网站使用了两步验证,这个插件能正常工作吗?

可以,大部分时候不会出现问题

One exception I’m aware of is Duo Security. If you’re using this plugin, you should install the User Switching for Duo Security add-on plugin which will prevent the two-factor authentication prompt from appearing when you switch between users.

What capability does a user need in order to switch accounts?

A user needs the edit_users capability in order to switch user accounts. By default only Administrators have this capability, and with Multisite enabled only Super Admins have this capability.

Can the ability to switch accounts be granted to other users or roles?

Yes. The switch_users meta capability can be explicitly granted to a user or a role to allow them to switch users regardless of whether or not they have the edit_users capability. For practical purposes, the user or role will also need the list_users capability so they can access the Users menu in the WordPress admin area.

Can the ability to switch accounts be denied from users?

Yes. User capabilities in WordPress can be set to false to deny them from a user. Denying the switch_users capability prevents the user from switching users, even if they have the edit_users capability.

add_filter( 'user_has_cap', function( $allcaps, $caps, $args, $user ) {
    if ( 'switch_to_user' === $args[0] ) {
        if ( my_condition() ) {
            $allcaps['switch_users'] = false;
        }
    }
    return $allcaps;
}, 9, 4 );

Note that this needs to happen before User Switching’s own capability filtering, hence the priority of 9.

Can I add a custom “Switch To” link to my own plugin or theme?

Yes. Use the user_switching::maybe_switch_url() method for this. It takes care of authentication and returns a nonce-protected URL for the current user to switch into the provided user account.

if ( method_exists( 'user_switching', 'maybe_switch_url' ) ) {
    $url = user_switching::maybe_switch_url( $target_user );
    if ( $url ) {
        printf(
            '<a href="%1$s">Switch to %2$s</a>',
            $url,
            $target_user->display_name
        );
    }
}

Can I determine whether the current user switched into their account?

Yes. Use the current_user_switched() function for this.

if ( function_exists( 'current_user_switched' ) ) {
    $switched_user = current_user_switched();
    if ( $switched_user ) {
        // User is logged in and has switched into their account.
        // $switched_user is the WP_User object for their originating user.
    }
}

Does this plugin allow a user to frame another user for an action?

Potentially yes, but User Switching includes some safety protections for this and there are further precautions you can take as a site administrator:

  • User Switching stores the ID of the originating user in the new session for the user they switch to. Although this session does not persist by default when they subsequently switch back, there will be a record of this ID if your MySQL server has query logging enabled.
  • User Switching stores the login name of the originating user in an authentication cookie (see the Privacy Statement for more information). If your server access logs store cookie data, there will be a record of this login name (along with the IP address) for each access request.
  • You can install an audit trail plugin such as Simple History, WP Activity Log, or Stream, all of which have built-in support for User Switching and all of which log an entry when a user switches into another account.
  • User Switching triggers an action when a user switches account, switches off, or switches back (see below). You can use these actions to perform additional logging for safety purposes depending on your requirements.

One or more of the above should allow you to correlate an action with the originating user when a user switches account, should you need to.

Bear in mind that even without the User Switching plugin in use, any user who has the ability to edit another user can still frame another user for an action by, for example, changing their password and manually logging into that account. If you are concerned about users abusing others, you should take great care when granting users administrative rights.

Can regular admins on Multisite installations switch accounts?

No. This can be enabled though by installing the User Switching for Regular Admins plugin.

Can I switch users directly from the admin toolbar?

Yes, there’s a third party add-on plugin for this: Admin Bar User Switching.

Are any plugin actions called when a user switches account?

Yes. When a user switches to another account, the switch_to_user hook is called:

/**
 * Fires when a user switches to another user account.
 *
 * @since 0.6.0
 * @since 1.4.0 The `$new_token` and `$old_token` parameters were added.
 *
 * @param int    $user_id     The ID of the user being switched to.
 * @param int    $old_user_id The ID of the user being switched from.
 * @param string $new_token   The token of the session of the user being switched to. Can be an empty string
 *                            or a token for a session that may or may not still be valid.
 * @param string $old_token   The token of the session of the user being switched from.
 */
do_action( 'switch_to_user', $user_id, $old_user_id, $new_token, $old_token );

When a user switches back to their originating account, the switch_back_user hook is called:

/**
 * Fires when a user switches back to their originating account.
 *
 * @since 0.6.0
 * @since 1.4.0 The `$new_token` and `$old_token` parameters were added.
 *
 * @param int       $user_id     The ID of the user being switched back to.
 * @param int|false $old_user_id The ID of the user being switched from, or false if the user is switching back
 *                               after having been switched off.
 * @param string    $new_token   The token of the session of the user being switched to. Can be an empty string
 *                               or a token for a session that may or may not still be valid.
 * @param string    $old_token   The token of the session of the user being switched from.
 */
do_action( 'switch_back_user', $user_id, $old_user_id, $new_token, $old_token );

When a user switches off, the switch_off_user hook is called:

/**
 * Fires when a user switches off.
 *
 * @since 0.6.0
 * @since 1.4.0 The `$old_token` parameter was added.
 *
 * @param int    $old_user_id The ID of the user switching off.
 * @param string $old_token   The token of the session of the user switching off.
 */
do_action( 'switch_off_user', $old_user_id, $old_token );

In addition, User Switching respects the following filters from WordPress core when appropriate:

  • login_redirect when switching to another user.
  • logout_redirect when switching off.

Do you accept donations?

I am accepting sponsorships via the GitHub Sponsors program and any support you can give will help me maintain this plugin and keep it free for everyone.

Reviews

Bug

2020年10月12日
The plugin is good but I'm a little scared with the glitch. It randomly display a switch back to admin link below the footer even if you're not logged in then if you click the link, it will login the admin.
阅读所有的185评价

Contributors & Developers

“用户切换” 是开源软件。 以下人员对此插件做出了贡献。

Contributors

“用户切换” 已翻译成42 语言环境。 感谢译者的贡献。

将“用户切换”翻译成您的语言。

Interested in development?

Browse the code, check out the SVN repository, or subscribe to the development log by RSS.

更新日志

1.5.6

  • Add a class to the table row on the user edit screen.
  • Updated docs.

1.5.5

  • Added the user_switching_in_footer filter to disable output in footer on front end.
  • Documentation additions and improvements.

1.5.4

  • Fix a cookie issue caused by Jetpack 8.1.1 which prevented switching back to the original user.

1.5.3

  • Remove usage of a method that’s been deprecated in WordPress 5.3

1.5.2

  • Set the correct lang attribute on User Switching’s admin notice.
  • Move the WooCommerce session forgetting to an action callback so it can be unhooked if necessary.

1.5.1

  • Add appropriate HTTP response codes to the error states.
  • Display User Switching’s messages in the original user’s locale.
  • Increase the priority of the hook that sets up the cookie constants. See #40.
  • Don’t attempt to output the ‘Switch To’ link on author archives when the queried object isn’t a user. See #39.

1.5.0

  • Add support for forgetting WooCommerce sessions when switching between users. Requires WooCommerce 3.6+.

1.4.2

  • Don’t attempt to add the Switch To link to the admin toolbar when viewing an author archive in the admin area. This prevents a fatal error occurring when filtering custom post type listing screens by authors in the admin area.

1.4.1

  • Add a Switch To link to the Edit User admin toolbar menu when viewing an author archive.
  • Add a Switch back link to the Edit User admin toolbar menu when viewing an author archive and you’re already switched.

1.4.0

  • Add support for user session retention, reuse, and destruction when switching to and back from other user accounts.
  • Add support for the switch_users meta capability for fine grained control over the ability to switch user accounts.
  • More code and documentation quality improvements.

1.3.1

  • Add support for the X-Redirect-By header in WordPress 5.0.
  • Allow User Switching’s admin notices to be dismissed.
  • Introduce a privacy statement.

1.3.0

  • Update the BuddyPress compatibility.
  • Various code and inline docs improvements.

1.2.0

  • Improve the Switch Back functionality when the interim login window is shown.
  • Always show the Switch Back link in the Meta widget if it’s present.

1.1.0

  • Introduce a user_switching_switched_message filter to allow customisation of the message displayed to switched users in the admin area.
  • Switch to safe redirects for extra paranoid hardening.
  • Docblock improvements.
  • Coding standards improvements.

0.6.1

  • Slovak translation by Max Samael.

0.6

  • More intuitive redirecting after switching.
  • Avoid a BuddyPress bug preventing Switch To buttons from appearing.
  • Added a template function: current_user_switched() which lets you know if the current user switched into their account.
  • Added some hooks: switch_to_user, switch_back_user and switch_off_user, fired when appropriate.

0.5.2

  • Farsi (Persian) translation by Amin Ab.
  • Display switch back links in Network Admin and login screen.
  • Avoid a BuddyPress bug preventing Switch To buttons from appearing.

0.5.1

  • Toolbar tweaks for WordPress 3.3.

0.5.1.1

  • Chinese Simplified translation by Sparanoid.

0.5.1.2

  • German translation by Ralph Stenzel.

0.5

  • New “Switch off” function: Log out and log instantly back in again when needed (see the FAQ).

0.4.1

  • Support for upcoming changes to the admin bar in WordPress 3.3.

0.4

  • Add some extended support for BuddyPress.
  • Add some extended support for Multisite.
  • Fix a permissions problem for users with no privileges.
  • Fix a PHP warning when used as a mu-plugin (thanks Scribu).

0.3.2

  • Fix the ‘Switch back to’ menu item in the WordPress admin bar (WordPress 3.1+).
  • Fix a formatting issue on the user profile page.

0.3.1

  • Prevent admins switching to multisite super admin accounts.

0.3

  • Adds an admin bar menu item (WordPress 3.1+) for switching back to the user you switched from.

0.2.2

  • Respect the current ‘Remember me’ setting when switching users.
  • Redirect to home page instead of admin screen if the user you’re switching to has no privileges.

0.2.1

  • Edge case bugfix to prevent ‘Switch back to…’ message appearing when it shouldn’t.

0.2

  • Functionality for switching back to user you switched from.

0.1

  • Initial release.